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Most importantly, Morse pointed out that to save the salmon, we must generate a collective voice that understands the needs of the species and recognizes its value as a natural resource with historical and cultural importance, and a species that deserves its place on the planet.

reduces the in river mortality rate of the smolt and ensures that most of the fish will make it to the ocean, he said. A smolt journey downstream is the most perilous leg of a salmon life. The staggeringly low rate of salmon that return to the hatchery to spawn makes this management strategy imperative to propagate the species as efficiently as possible.

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Although California salmon populations have declined since early settlers colonized the region 150 years ago, nothing has had a greater impact on the species than the construction of Prada New Bag

dam allows us to keep the American River flow up by releasing excess water into the river when it gets extremely low during the dry season, McCracken said. Minimum flow levels stimulate salmon to migrate and help maintain clean spawning grounds and overall water quality by washing away pollutants and sediment.

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In November, the river temperature reached the required 61 degrees Fahrenheit for spawning and the first fascinating, but brutal, egg take and fertilization of the season finally took place at the hatchery. In a little less than one year, these newly fertilized pea sized, bright orange eggs will be among 32 million, 6 inch salmon smolt raised at the hatchery and ready for release.

Eight miles of the American River stretching between Ancil Hoffman Park in Carmichael and the Nimbus Dam in Rancho Cordova are all that remain of a once robust 125 miles of Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Central Valley.

pollutant itself may not directly kill a salmon, Morse said, it can destroy or affect small invertebrates and plant life, which in turn impacts the food supply and alters the landscape of sensitive salmon habitat.

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Local salmon struggle to survive

the Folsom and Nimbus dams. Bureau of Reclamation to dam the river and regulate its flow. The dams were designed to complement a growing population infrastructure with flood control, energy generation, drinking water for nearly 1 million people and a culture of aquatic recreation that is a signature of our region, said Jeff McCracken of the Bureau of Reclamation. However, the salmon would lose more than 100 miles of precious habitat in the deal.

see less than 1 percent and sometimes less than one half of 1 percent return rate, Morse said. On the low end, that fewer than 160,000 fish out of 32 million that are genetically pre determined to return to Nimbus Hatchery. Loss of habitat due to dam construction poses the greatest threat, though biologists target sedimentation, altered stream flow, loss of streamside vegetation, rise in water temperature and pollution the result of human activity the categorical biggies that account for dozens of complex threats to the species.

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compensate for the habitat loss and the direct impact on the species, the Bureau of Reclamation provided funds to build and operate the Nimbus Hatchery, built in 1955 at the time of Folsom Dam completion, to artificially spawn and raise Chinook salmon to propagate declining wild species, McCracken explained. As part of its mitigation, the Bureau of Reclamation is required to meet minimum flow levels in the American River, as well as water quality criteria and regulation of temperature for salmon populations. The bureau works with the California Department of Fish and Game to implement these requirements.

While the conundrum has captured the attention of the scientific community, there is still plenty the average citizen can do. One of the easiest methods to protect the health of salmon and waterways is to prevent pollution through storm drains, which empty directly into rivers without receiving treatment. Animal and green waste, trash, motor oil, detergent from washing cars and residual pesticides from lawns are typical storm drain pollutants.

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The Department of Fish and Game will soon undertake a major project to tag a quarter of the salmon raised and released at the hatchery to track where they go and how many survive to help biologists understand what is happening to the hatchery stock, Morse explained.

For cold water species such as salmon, temperature is imperative Pink Prada Backpack to Prada Nylon Tote

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its reproductive cycle. Five years ago, the Bureau of Reclamation installed a device to allow cold water to be withdrawn from the bottom of the reservoir and released into the river to meet temperature requirements for salmon migration, McCracken explained. Though this year, salmon ready to spawn returned to Nimbus Hatchery later than usual due to warmer river temperatures.

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